Numerical Differential Protection: Principles and Applications

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Numerical Differential Protection: Principles and Applications

Format:  Hardcover,

287 pages

Publisher: Publicis MCD Werbeagentur GmbH

Publish Date: Feb 2012

ISBN-13: 9783895783517

ISBN-10: 389578351X

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Book Information

The following content was provided by the publisher.
Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric lines.
Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing.
The emphasis is then placed on the different variants of differential protection and their practical application illustrated by concrete examples. This is completed by recommendations for commissioning, testing and maintenance. Finally the design and management of modern differential protection is explained by means of the latest Siemens SIPROTEC relay series.
As a textbook and standard work in one, this book covers all topics, which have to be paid attention to for planning, designing, configuring and applying differential protection systems. The book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of differential protection, as well as the experienced user entering the area of numerical differential protection. Furthermore, it serves as a reference guide for solving application problems.
For the new edition all contents have been revised, extended and updated to the latest state-of-the-art of protective relaying.


Publisher: Publicis MCD Werbeagentur GmbH
Publish Date: Feb 2012
ISBN-13: 9783895783517
ISBN-10: 389578351X
Format: Hardcover
Number of Pages: 287
Shipping Weight (in pounds): 1.55
Product in Inches (L x W x H): 6.9 x 0.6 x 9.8

Chapter outline

Introductionp. 10
Protection principlep. 10
Numerical differential protectionp. 11
Definitionsp. 12
Mode of Operationp. 17
Introductionp. 17
Basic principlesp. 19
Current differential protectionp. 19
Biased (stabilized) differential protectionp. 22
Differential Protection with two pilot wire coresp. 27
Operating characteristicsp. 30
Measuring circuit for three phase systemsp. 34
Measurement per phasep. 36
Composite current versionp. 36
High Impedance (HI) Differential Protectionp. 42
Partial Differential Protectionp. 50
Measuring Techniquep. 52
Classical analog systemsp. 52
Numerical measuring techniquep. 55
Acquisition of measured valuesp. 55
Differential protection with instantaneous value comparisonp. 57
Differential protection with phasorsp. 59
Additional stabilisation with CT saturationp. 66
Current Transformers (CTs)p. 70
Current Transformer equivalent circuitsp. 70
Specifications for the steady state response of current transformersp. 72
Transient response of the CTp. 76
TP Current transformer classesp. 80
Polarity of the CTp. 84
CT errorsp. 85
Dimensioning of the CTp. 87
Interposing CTsp. 97
Communicationsp. 117
Transmission channelsp. 117
Pilot wiresp. 117
Fiber Optic Cablesp. 127
Line of sight radio linksp. 132
Digital protection communicationp. 133
Digital communication networksp. 142
Generator/Motor Differential Protectionp. 149
Generator differential protectionp. 150
Motor Differential Protectionp. 165
Transformer Differential Protectionp. 167
Basic physicsp. 167
Numerical measured value processingp. 173
High impedance differential protectionp. 186
Relays for transformer differential protectionp. 188
Application examples for transformer protectionp. 190
Line Differential Protectionp. 202
Three core pilot wire (triplet) differential protectionp. 203
Two core (twisted pair) pilot wire differential protectionp. 204
Line differential protection with digital communicationp. 215
Devices and system configurationp. 215
Measuring techniquep. 217
Communication variantsp. 222
Additional functions and application notesp. 223
Phase comparison protection with digital communicationp. 226
Differential protection of feeders including transformersp. 232
Protection of transformer feedersp. 232
Differential protection for feeders with tee-offs (tapped lines)p. 233
Busbar Differential Protectionp. 237
Low impedance busbar differential protectionp. 239
Partially numerical busbar differential protection 7SS600p. 241
Fully-numerical busbar protection 7SS52p. 245
Response of the numerical busbar protection in the case of CT saturation and the demands placed on CT dimensionp. 254
High-impedance busbar protectionp. 262
Relay Designp. 265
Commissioning and Maintenancep. 272
Commissioningp. 272
Maintenancep. 274
Literaturep. 275
Addendump. 283
Indexp. 284

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