Foundations of Professional Psychology: The End of Theoretical Orientations and the Emergence of the Biopsychosocial Approach

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Foundations of Professional Psychology: The End of Theoretical Orientations and the Emergence of the Biopsychosocial Approach

Format:  Hardcover,

248 pages

Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd

Publish Date: Jul 2011

ISBN-13: 9780123850799

ISBN-10: 0123850797

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The following content was provided by the publisher.
Recent advances in the scientific understanding of the human mind and brain along with the emphases on evidence-based practice and competency-based education are creating increasing pressures to update some of the traditional approaches to structuring and organizing education and practice in the field. There have also been many calls in recent years for a unified approach to conceptualizing professional practice in psychology. This book examines whether there exists a unified conceptual framework for the field that is firmly based on current scientific understanding regarding human development and functioning, that applies across all the clinical populations and practice areas within the field, and that would also help integrate professional psychology more fully into health care and the sciences generally.
Presents a unified science-based conceptual framework for professional psychologyProvides an overview of the whole treatment process as informed by a biopsychosocial approach, from intake through outcomes assessmentAvoids highly technical language so that students and practitioners from across the field can follow the discussion

Specifications

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd
Publish Date: Jul 2011
ISBN-13: 9780123850799
ISBN-10: 0123850797
Format: Hardcover
Number of Pages: 248
Shipping Weight (in pounds): 1.15
Product in Inches (L x W x H): 6.0 x 0.63 x 9.0

Chapter outline

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. 1
The Need for a Unified Conceptual Framework in Professional Psychologyp. 3
Traditional Approaches to Professional Psychology Education and Practicep. 5
Two Critical Questions Facing the Professionp. 7
Organization of This Volumep. 8
Basic Definitionsp. 10
Behavioral Healthp. 10
Biopsychosocial Approachp. 10
Complexity Theoryp. 11
Client Versus Patientp. 11
Evidence-based Practicep. 11
General Versus Specialized Practicep. 12
Mental Healthp. 12
Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Theoryp. 12
Professional Psychologyp. 12
Psychological Interventionp. 13
Therapistp. 13
Conceptual and Theoretical Foundations of Professional Psychologyp. 15
Professional Psychology as a Health Care Professionp. 17
Traditional Approaches to Defining Professional Psychologyp. 17
Defining Professional Psychologyp. 22
Discussionp. 25
The Public We Serve: Their Mental Health Needs and Sociocultural and Medical Circumstancesp. 27
Behavioral Health Needsp. 28
Sociocultural and Medical Circumstances and Characteristicsp. 32
Demographic Characteristicsp. 32
Medical Conditionsp. 32
Educational Attainment, Vocational and Financial Statusp. 34
Family Characteristics and Relationshipsp. 35
History of Child Maltreatmentp. 36
Legal and Criminal Involvementp. 37
Religion and Spiritualityp. 37
Implications for Professional Psychology as a Health Care Professionp. 37
Understanding and Resolving Theoretical Confusion in Professional Psychologyp. 39
The Complicated Theoretical Setting Within Professional Psychologyp. 39
The Evolution of Psychology and the Natural Sciencesp. 41
Complexity of Psychological Phenomenap. 42
Kuhnian Scientific Revolutionsp. 42
Availability of Conceptual and Technological Toolsp. 44
Clarifying Conceptual Confusion in Psychologyp. 46
Is it Time to Leave Behind the Pre-paradigmatic Era of Psychology?p. 48
Basic Requirements for a Paradigmatic Conceptual Framework for Psychologyp. 50
Complexity of Human Psychologyp. 51
Applicability Across All of Professional Psychologyp. 52
Many Effective Treatmentsp. 52
Strength of Scientific Foundations of Professional Psychologyp. 52
Conclusionsp. 54
The Biopsychosocial Approach: General Systems, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems, and Complexity Theoryp. 57
Introduction to General Systems, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems, and Complexity Theoryp. 58
Familiar Examples of Complex Systems for Psychologistsp. 60
The Nature of Changep. 60
Statistical Interactionp. 60
Psychometricsp. 61
Newtonian Mechanics Versus Thermodynamicsp. 61
Definition of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Complexity Theoryp. 62
Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Complexity Theory as Metatheoryp. 63
Historical Origins of Complexity Theory: Chaos Theoryp. 64
Logistic Map and Attractorsp. 65
Bifurcationp. 66
Other Important Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Conceptsp. 67
Factalsp. 68
Solf-Organizationp. 71
Emergencep. 71
How Effective Are Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Complexity Theory in Psychology?p. 72
Conclusionsp. 73
Ethical Foundations of Professional Psychologyp. 77
The Importance of Foundational Ethical Principlesp. 79
Confusing What Is for What Ought to Bep. 79
The Universality of Ethicsp. 81
The Question of Moral Statusp. 82
Ethical Theoryp. 83
Consequentialist Approachesp. 84
Deontological or Kantian Approachesp. 85
Liberal Individualismp. 85
Communitarian Approachesp. 86
An Integrative Approachp. 87
Principle-Based, Common Morality Approach to Biomedical Ethicsp. 89
Respect for Autonomyp. 89
Informed Consentp. 90
Nonmaleficencep. 91
Beneficencep. 93
Justicep. 94
Moral Characterp. 95
Compassionp. 96
Discernmentp. 96
Trustworthinessp. 96
Integrityp. 96
Conscientiousnessp. 97
Conclusionsp. 97
A Unified Conceptual Framework for Professional Psychologyp. 99
Underlying Assumptions of the Proposed Unified Frameworkp. 100
A Unified Frameworkp. 103
Implications of a Unified Biopsychosocial Framework for Professional Psychologyp. 106
Discussionp. 110
Conceptualizing Psychological Treatment from a Biopsychosocial Perspectivep. 113
Assessmentp. 115
Overall Purposes of Psychological Assessmentp. 116
Areas Included in Psychological Assessmentp. 119
Sources of Assessment Informationp. 123
Thoroughness of the Assessment Informationp. 127
Assessing Severity of Patient Needsp. 128
Integrating Assessment Datap. 133
Prioritizing Needsp. 133
Overall Complexity of Needsp. 135
Integrating Assessment Informationp. 136
Conclusionsp. 138
Case Example: A Cognitive-Behavioral Versus a Biopsychosocial Approach to Assessment with a Mildly Depressed Patientp. 142
Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Assessmentp. 142
Biopsychosocial Approach to Assessmentp. 143
Treatment Planningp. 147
ACritical Preliminary Issuep. 148
Treatment Planning from a Biopsychosocial Perspectivep. 151
Starting at the Beginning: Deciding Whether to Intervenep. 151
Addressing Severity and Complexity of Needp. 153
Level of Care Decision Makingp. 154
Graduated, Stepped Models of Interventionp. 155
Collaborative Carep. 157
Contextual Factorsp. 157
Ongoing Care and Follow-Upp. 158
Orange of Alternative Interventionsp. 158
Case Example: A Biopsychosocial Approach to Treatment Planning With a Mildly Depressed Patientp. 165
Treatmentp. 167
Is Psychotherapy Effective?p. 168
Are the Benefits of Psychotherapy Clinically Significant?p. 169
Do the Benefits of Psychotherapy Last?p. 170
How Does the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Compare with Medications?p. 170
Does Psychotherapy Work for All Patients?p. 171
What Factors Account for the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy?p. 172
How Important Are the Skills of the Individual Therapist in Explaining Therapy Effectiveness?p. 174
Can the Number of Treatment Failures Be Reduced?p. 175
A Biopsychosocial Perspective on Treatmentp. 176
Broadening of Case Conceptualizationp. 177
Broadening of Treatment Optionsp. 178
Increased Collaboration with Other Professionals and Third Partiesp. 179
Systematic Monitoring of Treatment Outcomesp. 179
Conclusionsp. 180
Case Example: A Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychotherapy with a Mildly Depressed Patientp. 181
Outcomes Assessmentp. 183
Growing Importance of Outcomes Assessmentp. 183
Outcomes Assessment in Health Care Generallyp. 186
Generic Measuresp. 187
Condition-Specific Measuresp. 187
Outcomes Assessment in Behavioral Health Carep. 188
Selecting Outcome Measuresp. 188
Sources of Outcome Datap. 191
Schedule for Collecting Datap. 192
Follow-Upp. 192
The Biopsychosocial Approach to Outcomes Assessmentp. 192
Case Example: Assessing Treatment Outcomes from a Biopsychosocial Approach with a Mildly Depressed Patientp. 194
Additional Foci of Outcome Assessmentp. 195
Patient Satisfactionp. 195
Cost Effectivenessp. 195
Conclusionsp. 197
Additional Implications for Professional Psychologyp. 199
Prevention and Public Health Perspective on Behavioral Healthp. 201
The Importance of a Public Health Perspective on Behavioral Healthp. 201
Basic Conceptsp. 204
Risk and Protective Factorsp. 205
Effectiveness of Preventive Interventionsp. 207
Conclusionsp. 208
Conclusions and Implications for Professional Psychology Education, Practice, and Researchp. 211
Conclusions Regarding the Two Critical Issues Needing Resolution in Professional Psychologyp. 212
Professional Psychology in the Midst of Remarkable Scientific Progressp. 214
Implications for Education and Licensurep. 216
Implications for Professional Practicep. 219
Implications for Research and Sciencep. 220
Conclusionsp. 221
Referencesp. 225

Book description

Recent advances in the scientific understanding of the human mind and brain along with the emphases on evidence-based practice and competency-based education are creating increasing pressures to update some of the traditional approaches to structuring and organizing education and practice in the field. There have also been many calls in recent years for a unified approach to conceptualizing professional practice in psychology. This book examines whether there exists a unified conceptual framework for the field that is firmly based on current scientific understanding regarding human development and functioning, that applies across all the clinical populations and practice areas within the field, and that would also help integrate professional psychology more fully into health care and the sciences generally.

  • Presents a unified science-based conceptual framework for professional psychology
  • Provides an overview of the whole treatment process as informed by a biopsychosocial approach, from intake through outcomes assessment
  • Avoids highly technical language so that students and practitioners from across the field can follow the discussion

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