Cross-Cultural Management: Essential Concepts

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Cross-Cultural Management: Essential Concepts

Format:  Paperback,

327 pages

Edition: Second

Publisher: Sage Pubns

Publish Date: Apr 2008

ISBN-13: 9781412939560

ISBN-10: 1412939569

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The globalization of the business environment that is being driven by technological and economic factors is resulting in an ever-increasing number of cross-cultural interactions in the workplace. Understanding the influence of culture on interpersonal interactions in organizational settings is now a fundamental requirement of effective international management. This book will be an aid to that understanding.Cross-Cultural Management: Essential Concepts, Second Edition examines cross-cultural management issues from a predominantly psychological perspective. As opposed to being country specific, this book focuses on the interactions of people from different cultures in organizational settings. That is, the approach used is to understand the effect of culture in a way that can then be applied to a wide variety of cross-cultural interactions in a number of organizational contexts. This book supersedes the previous volume as it extracts key concepts on management from a cross-cultural perspective and condenses them into an accessible tool for both students and teachers alike. New to this Second EditionEach chapter has been updated to include the most current research available Chapter 1 has been refocused to be a synthesis of an introduction to the global business environment the challenge of evaluating international/cross-cultural management research. A new Chapter 11 on the Challenge of Managing in the Future Expanded coverage of cultural dimensions and negotiation, and of holistic approaches to cross-cultural negotiation in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 now contains a section on work motivation across cultures including the material on designing motivating jobs that appeared in Chapter 9 of the previous edition. Extended coverage of global virtual teams in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 is now refocused to include work on international organization design by Bartlett and Ghoshal. Updated coverage of self-initiated overseas assignments, alternatives to expatriation, repatriation, and global careers in Chapter 10.

Intended Audience: Students of organizational behavior, industrial and organizational psychology, and social psychology will find many of the topic areas familiar. However, the focus of this book is on application of these concepts to global management.

Specifications

Author:
Publisher: Sage Pubns
Publish Date: Apr 2008
ISBN-13: 9781412939560
ISBN-10: 1412939569
Format: Paperback
Number of Pages: 327
Shipping Weight (in pounds): 1.04
Product in Inches (L x W x H): 6.08 x 0.72 x 8.92

Chapter outline

Preface
Management and Culture
Introduction: The Challenging Role of the Global Manager
Globalization
Growing Economic Interconnectedness
More Complex and Dynamic Work Environment
Increased Use and Sophistication of Information Technology
More and Different Players in the Global Stage
Environment of Global Management
What Global Managers Do
Organizational Context, Culture, and Managerial Roles
Evaluating Cross-Cultural Management Studies
Limitations in Present Management Studies
Types of International Management Research
Methodological Issues in Cross-Cultural Research
Critiques of International and Cross-Cultural Research
Describing Culture: What It Is and Where It Comes From
Features of Culture
Culture is Shared
Culture is Learned
Culture is Systematic and Organized
Why Cultures Differ and Persist
Survival
Language
Religion
Other Factors
Debates Surrounding the Concept of Culture
National Culture
Convergence, Divergence or Equilibrium
Organizational versus National Culture
Acculturation and Biculturalism
Culture and Social Groups
In-Group Bias and Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Comparing Cultures: Systematically Describing Cultural Differences
Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck Framework
Hofstede's Study
Confucian-Dynamism
Cultural Distance
Criticism of Hofstede's Study
Schwartz Value Survey
Trompenaars's Dimensions
The GLOBE Study
Individualism and Collectivism
Tightness and Complexity
Vertical and Horizontal Dimensions
Social Axioms
Use of the Frameworks
How Culture Works: Fundamentals of Cross-Cultural Interaction
Social Cognition
Cultural Norms and Scripts
Selective Perception
Perceived Similarity and Attraction
Stereotypic Expectations
National Stereotypes
Resistance to New Information
Stereotype Complexity and Evaluation
Social Dominance
Differential Attributions
Inconclusive Information
Attribution Error
Cultural Differences in Attribution Bias
Cross-Cultural Interaction Model
Motivation Across Cultures
Cultural Variation in Self-Concept
Motivational Implications of Differing Self-Concepts
Roles of the Global Manager
The Manager as Decision Maker: Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Decision Making Rational Decision Making
Cultural Differences in the Optimization Model
Limits to Rationality
Cultural Constraints on Rationality
Heuristics
Availability
Representativeness
Anchoring and Adjustment
Motivational Biases in Decision Making
Selection and Reward Allocation Decisions
Ethical Dilemmas in Decision Making
Moral Philosophies
Consequential Models
Deontological or Rule-Based Models
Cultural Relativism
Cognitive Moral Development
The Manager as Negotiator: Communicating and Negotiating across Cultures
Cross-Cultural Communication Process
Language
Communication Styles
Explicit versus Implicit Communication
Direct versus Indirect Communication
Silence and Verbal Overkill
Use of Praise
Other Language Considerations
Slang and Jargon
Euphemisms
Idioms
Proverbs and Maxims
Language Pragmatics
Language Accommodation
Stylistic Accommodation
Language Fluency
Nonverbal Communication
Tone of Voice
Proxemics
Body Position and Gestures
Facial Expression
Eye Contact (Gaze)
Negotiating and Conflict Resolution across Cultures
Descriptions Negotiation Process and Behavior
Cultural Dimensions and Negotiation
Holistic Approaches to Negotiation
The Manager as Leader: Motivation and Leadership across Cultures
Motivation Across Cultures
Content Theories
Process Theories
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory
Goal Setting
Meaning of Work
Designing Motivating Jobs
Leadership
Western Leadership Theory
Trait Theories
Behavioral Theories
Contingency Theories
Implicit Theories
Project GLOBE
Non-Western Theories of Leadership
Performance-Maintenance Theory
Leadership in the Arab World
Paternalism
Integrated Cross-Cultural Model of Leadership
Implications for the Practice of Leadership
Universal Leadership Functions
Culture-Specific Leader Behaviors
Situational Moderators
Global Management Challenges
The Challenge of Multicultural Work Groups and Teams
Work Groups
Work-Group Effectiveness
External Conditions
Group-Member Resources
Group Structure
Group Process
Group Processes over Time
Group Task
Group Composition
Culture's Influence on Work Groups
Cultural Norms
Cultural Diversity
Relative Cultural Distance
Culture's Effect in Different Group Structures and Tasks
Global Virtual Teams
Organizational Context and Culturally Diverse Work Groups
Management Support
Group-Level Rewards
Work-Group Status
Training
Self-Management
Managing Multicultural Work Groups
Work-Group Task and Structure
Broad Evaluation Criteria
Composition and Task Requirements
Common Purpose
The Challenge of Designing International Organizations
Organizations
Organizational Designs
Explaining Organizational Structure
Deterministic Theory
Contingency Theory
Ecological Theories
Institutional Theory
Culture and Organizational Structure
Culture-Free Perspective
Structural Variation across Cultures
Informal Organization
Organizing in Multinational Organizations
Multinational Structures
International Collaborative Alliances
International Mergers and Acquisitions
MNO Subsidiary Structure
Managerial Roles in Multinational Organizations
Cultural Differences in the Psychological Contract
The Challenge of International Assignments
The Role of Expatriates
Individual Staffing Decisions
Selection of Managers for Overseas Assignments
Decision to Accept an Overseas Assignment
Definitions of Success
Turnover
Adjustment
Task Performance
Adjustment-Performance Relationship
Factors Affecting Expatriate Success
Individual Factors
Demographics
Foreign Language Ability and Previous International Experience
Nationality of Expatriates
Gender of Expatriates
Job and Organizational Factors
Expatriate Job Characteristics
Job Level
Expatriate Training
Environmental Factors
Cultural Novelty
Social Support
Repatriation
Global Careers
The Challenge of Managing across Cultures in the Future
The Changing Environment of Business
Uneven Development
Influence of Transition Economies
Information and Communication Technology
Pressure on the Natural Environment
The Adaptation of Organizations and People
The MNO Context
The Future of Organizational Work
The Development of Global Managers
Summary
References
Author Index
Subject Index
About the Author

Book description

The globalization of the business environment that is being driven by technological and economic factors is resulting in an ever-increasing number of cross-cultural interactions in the workplace. Understanding the influence of culture on interpersonal interactions in organizational settings is now a fundamental requirement of effective international management. This book will be an aid to that understanding.Â

Cross-Cultural Management: Essential Concepts, Second Edition examines cross-cultural management issues from a predominantly psychological perspective. As opposed to being country specific, this book focuses on the interactions of people from different cultures in organizational settings. That is, the approach used is to understand the effect of culture in a way that can then be applied to a wide variety of cross-cultural interactions in a number of organizational contexts.

This book supersedes the previous volume as it extracts key concepts on management from a cross-cultural perspective and condenses them into an accessible tool for both students and teachers alike.

New to this Second Edition

  • Each chapter has been updated to include the most current research available
  • Chapter 1 has been refocused to be a synthesis of an introduction to the global business environment the challenge of evaluating international/cross-cultural management research.
  • A new Chapter 11 on the Challenge of Managing in the Future
  • Expanded coverage of cultural dimensions and negotiation, and of holistic approaches to cross-cultural negotiation in Chapter 6.
  • Chapter 7 now contains a section on work motivation across cultures including the material on designing motivating jobs that appeared in Chapter 9 of the previous edition.
  • Extended coverage of global virtual teams in Chapter 8.
  • Chapter 9 is now refocused to include work on international organization design by Bartlett and Ghoshal.
  • Updated coverage of self-initiated overseas assignments, alternatives to expatriation, repatriation, and global careers in Chapter 10.

Intended Audience: Students of organizational behavior, industrial and organizational psychology, and social psychology will find many of the topic areas familiar. However, the focus of this book is on application of these concepts to global management.

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