Adsorption Technology in Water Treatment: Fundamentals, Processes, and Modeling

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Adsorption Technology in Water Treatment: Fundamentals, Processes, and Modeling

Format:  Hardcover,

332 pages

Publisher: De Gruyter

Publish Date: Aug 2012

ISBN-13: 9783110240221

ISBN-10: 311024022X

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Book Information

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This scientific monograph treats the theoretical fundamentals of adsorption technology for water treatment from a practical perspective. It presents all the basics needed for experimental adsorption studies as well as for process modeling and adsorber design. With the increasing importance of micropollutants in the water cycle, particular attention is paid to their competitive adsorption in presence of background organic matter. Clear illustrations, extensive literature references make this work indispensible for scientists and technicians involved in water treatment.


Publisher: De Gruyter
Publish Date: Aug 2012
ISBN-13: 9783110240221
ISBN-10: 311024022X
Format: Hardcover
Number of Pages: 332
Shipping Weight (in pounds): 1.55
Product in Inches (L x W x H): 6.9 x 0.8 x 9.6

Chapter outline

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. 1
Basic concepts and definitionsp. 1
Adsorption as a surface processp. 1
Some general thermodynamic considerationsp. 2
Adsorption versus absorptionp. 3
Description of adsorption processes: The structure of the adsorption theoryp. 3
Engineered adsorption processes in water treatmentp. 5
Overviewp. 5
Drinking water treatmentp. 6
Wastewater treatmentp. 6
Hybrid processes in water treatmentp. 7
Natural sorption processes in water treatmentp. 8
Adsorbents and adsorbent characterizationp. 11
Introduction and adsorbent classificationp. 11
Engineered adsorbentsp. 12
Activated carbonp. 12
Polymeric adsorbentsp. 15
Oxidic adsorbentsp. 16
Synthetic zeolitesp. 17
Natural and low-cost adsorbentsp. 18
Geosorbents in environmental compartmentsp. 19
Adsorbent characterizationp. 20
Densitiesp. 20
Porositiesp. 22
External surface areap. 23
Internal surface areap. 25
Pore-size distributionp. 28
Surface chemistryp. 34
Adsorption equilibrium I: General aspects and single-solute adsorptionp. 41
Introductionp. 41
Experimental determination of equilibrium datap. 42
Basicsp. 42
Practical aspects of isotherm determinationp. 45
Isotherm equations for single-solute adsorptionp. 47
Classification of single-solute isotherm equationsp. 47
Irreversible isotherm and one-parameter isothermp. 48
Two-parameter isothermsp. 49
Three-parameter isothermsp. 55
Isotherm equations with more than three parametersp. 58
Prediction of isothermsp. 59
Temperature dependence of adsorptionp. 64
Slurry adsorber designp. 67
General aspectsp. 67
Single-stage adsorptionp. 69
Two-stage adsorptionp. 72
Application of isotherm data in kinetic or breakthrough curve modelsp. 74
Adsorption equilibrium II: Multisolute adsorptionp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Experimental determination of equilibrium datap. 78
Overview of existing multisolute adsorption modelsp. 80
Multisolute isotherm equationsp. 81
The ideal adsorbed solution theory (LAST)p. 84
Basics of the IASTp. 84
Solution to the IAST for given equilibrium concentrationsp. 88
Solution to the IAST for given initial concentrationsp. 90
The pH dependence of adsorption: A special case of competitive adsorptionp. 94
Adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM)p. 98
The significance of NOM in activated carbon adsorptionp. 98
Modeling of NOM adsorption: The fictive component approach (adsorption analysis)p. 100
Competitive adsorption of micropollutants and NOMp. 104
Slurry adsorber design for multisolute adsorptionp. 111
Basicsp. 111
NOM adsorptionp. 112
Competitive adsorption of micropollutants and NOMp. 113
Nonequilibrium adsorption in slurry reactorsp. 118
Special applications of the Active component approachp. 120
Adsorption kineticsp. 123
Introductionp. 123
Mass transfer mechanismsp. 123
Experimental determination of kinetic curvesp. 124
Mass transfer modelsp. 127
General considerationsp. 127
Film diffusionp. 129
Surface diffusionp. 136
Pore diffusionp. 143
Combined surface and pore diffusionp. 149
Simplified intraparticle diffusion model (LDF model)p. 153
Reaction kinetic modelsp. 162
Adsorption kinetics in multicomponent systemsp. 164
Practical aspects: Slurry adsorber designp. 166
Adsorption dynamics in fixed-bed adsorbersp. 169
Introductionp. 169
Experimental determination of breakthrough curvesp. 175
Fixed-bed process parametersp. 176
Material balancesp. 179
Types of material balancesp. 179
Integral material balancep. 179
Differential material balancep. 185
Practical aspectsp. 189
Introductionp. 189
Typical operating conditionsp. 190
Fixed-bed versus batch adsorberp. 191
Multiple adsorber systemsp. 193
Fixed-bed adsorber designp. 197
Introduction and model classificationp. 197
Scale-up methodsp. 198
Mass transfer zone (MTZ) modelp. 198
Length of unused bed (LUB) modelp. 202
Rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT)p. 203
Equilibrium column model (ECM)p. 207
Complete breakthrough curve modelsp. 211
Introductionp. 211
Homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM)p. 213
Constant pattern approach to the HSDM (CPHSDM)p. 217
Linear driving force (LDF) modelp. 220
Comparison of HSDM and LDF modelp. 224
Simplified breakthrough curve models with analytical solutionsp. 226
Determination of model parametersp. 232
General considerationsp. 232
Single-solute adsorptionp. 233
Competitive adsorption in defined multisolute systemsp. 238
Competitive adsorption in complex systems of unknown compositionp. 238
Special applications of breakthrough curve modelsp. 240
Micropollutant adsorption in presence of natural organic matterp. 240
Biologically active carbon filtersp. 248
Desorption and reactivationp. 253
Introductionp. 253
Physicochemical regeneration processesp. 254
Desorption into the gas phasep. 254
Desorption into the liquid phasep. 256
Reactivationp. 261
Geosorption processes in water treatmentp. 265
Introductionp. 265
Experimental determination of geosorption datap. 267
The advection-dispersion equation (ADE) and the retardation conceptp. 268
Simplified method for determination of Rd from experimental breakthrough curvesp. 271
Breakthrough curve modelingp. 273
Introduction and model classificationp. 273
Local equilibrium model (LEM)p. 275
Linear driving force (LDF) modelp. 277
Extension of the local equilibrium modelp. 279
Combined sorption and biodegradationp. 280
General model approachp. 280
Special case: Natural organic matter (NOM) sorption and biodegradationp. 285
The influence of pH and NOM on geosorption processesp. 287
pH-dependent sorptionp. 287
Influence of NOM on micropollutant sorptionp. 289
Practical aspects: Prediction of subsurface solute transportp. 291
General considerationsp. 291
Prediction of sorption coefficientsp. 293
Prediction of the dispersivityp. 295
Appendixp. 297
Conversion of Freundlich coefficientsp. 297
Evaluation of surface diffusion coefficients from experimental datap. 298
Constant pattern solution to the homogeneous surface diffusion model (CPHSDM)p. 302
Nomenclaturep. 307
Referencesp. 319
Indexp. 327

Book description

Adsorption processes find widespread application in different fields of water treatment, such as drinking water treatment, waste water treatment, groundwater remediation, and treatment of landfill leach ate. This scientific monograph provides the fundamentals of adsorption technology for water treatment with special focus on practical aspects and process modeling. Topics discussed in the monograph include: basic concepts and practical applications of adsorption processes; adsorbents and their characterization; adsorption equilibria; adsorption kinetics; adsorption dynamics in fixed-bed adsorb ers; regeneration and reactivation of adsorbents; and geo sorption processes during bank filtration and groundwater recharge.

According to the increasing importance of micro pollutants in the water cycle, particular attention is paid to their competitive adsorption in the presence of background organic matter. Adsorption Technology in Water Treatment is an indispensable guide for both scientists and technicians involved in water treatment. A broad overview of adsorption processes and adsorbents applied for water treatment, A comprehensive and systematic presentation of adsorption models, Essential basics of adsorb er design, Experimental methods and prediction tools for the determination of characteristic adsorption parameters, Numerous clear illustrations and informative tables Book jacket.

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