The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes

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The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes

Format:  Hardcover,

632 pages

Publisher: Oxford Univ Pr

Publish Date: Dec 2011

ISBN-13: 9780195393040

ISBN-10: 019539304X

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The following content was provided by the publisher.
The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes covers the basic principles of prokaryotic physiology, biochemistry, and cell behavior. The fourth edition features comprehensive updates that integrate the latest developments in the field, including genomics, microbial diversity, systems biology, cell-to-cell signaling, and biofilms. The book also presents microbial metabolism in the context of the chemical and physical problems that cells must solve in order to grow.
Written in a clear, straightforward manner, the fourth edition adds two new coauthors, Jim Drummond and Clay Fuqua, each a highly respected scholar in his field. The text is organized by topic rather than by organism; this innovative structure will help you to better understand the general principles of physiology and metabolism. Each chapter ends with a summary, thought-provoking study questions, and an extensive list of references to outside research literature that you can access for more information and detailed explanations of material in the text.
- New coauthors Jim Drummond and Clay Fuqua each contribute chapters that make this edition the most authoritative and current book in the discipline
- Three new chapters cover RNA and protein synthesis, microbial films, structured multicellular assemblies, and cell-to-cell communication mechanisms
- Comprehensive revisions update the text with the latest research in the discipline
-A new thematic emphasis introduces two themes:
A comprehensive energetics perspective
Molecular machinery will be described throughout the text to help create a unifying narrative across biological principles


Publisher: Oxford Univ Pr
Publish Date: Dec 2011
ISBN-13: 9780195393040
ISBN-10: 019539304X
Format: Hardcover
Number of Pages: 632
Shipping Weight (in pounds): 2.55
Product in Inches (L x W x H): 7.0 x 10.0 x 1.0
Walmart No.: 9780195393040

Chapter outline

Structure and Function
Cell Structure
Study Questions
Reference and Notes
Growth and Cell Division
Measurement of Growth
Growth Physiology
Growth Yields
Growth Kinetics
Steady State Growth and Continuous Growth
Cell Division
Study Questions
References and Notes
Chromosome Replication and Partitioning of Chromosomes
DNA Replication, Chromosome Separation, and Chromosome Partitioning
Study Questions
References and Notes
Membrane Bioenergetics: The Proton Potential
The Chemiosmotic Theory
Electrochemical Energy
The Contributions of the ?? and the ?pH to the Overall ?p in Neutrophiles, Acidophiles, and Alkaliphiles
Measurement of the ?p
Use of the ?p To Do Work
Exergonic Reactions That Generate a ?p
Other Mechanisms For Creating a ?? or a ?p
Halorhodopsin, a Light-Driven Chloride Pump
The ?p and ATP Synthesis in Alkaliphiles
Study Questions
References and Notes
Electron Transport
Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
The Electron Carriers
Organization of the Electron Carriers in Mitochondria
Organization of The Electron Carriers in Bacteria
Coupling Sites
How a Proton Potential Might Be Created at the Coupling Sites: Q Loops, Q Cycles, and Proton Pumps
Patterns of Electron Flow in Individual Bacterial Species
Study Questions
References and Notes
The Phototrophic Prokaryotes
The Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria
The Green Sulfur Bacteria (Chlorobiaceae)
Cyanobacteria and Chloroplasts
Efficiency of Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Pigments
The Transfer of Energy from the Light Harvesting Pigments to the Reaction Center
The Structure of Photosynthetic Membranes in Bacteria
Study Questions
References and Notes
The Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
Patterns of Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
Kinetics of Regulatory and Nonregulatory Enzymes
Conformational Changes in Regulatory Enzymes
Regulation by Covalent Modification
Study Questions
References and Notes
Bioenergetics in the Cytosol
High-Energy Molecules and Group Transfer Potential
The Central Role of Group Transfer Reactions in Biosynthesis
ATP Synthesis by Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Study Questions
References and Notes
Central Metabolic Pathways
The Fate of NADH
Why Write NAD+ Instead of NAD, and NADH Instead of NADH2?
A Modified EMP Pathway in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
The Entner-Doudoroff Pathway
The Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA: The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Reaction
The Citric Acid Cycle
Carboxylations that Replenish Oxaloacetate: The Pyruvate and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylases
Modification of the Citric Acid Cycle Into a Reductive (Incomplete) Cycle During Fermentative Growth
Chemistry of Some of the Reactions in the Citric Acid Cycle
The Glyoxylate Cycle
Formation of Phosphoenolpyruvate
Formation of Pyruvate from Malate
Summary of the Relationships Between the Pathways
Study Questions
References and Notes
Metabolism of Lipids, Nucleotides, Amino Acids, and Hydrocarbons
Amino Acids
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Study Questions
References and Notes
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Cell Wall and Capsule Biosynthesis
Extracellular Polysaccharide Synthesis and Export in Gram Negative Bacteria
Levan and Dextran Synthesis
Glycogen Synthesis
Study Questions
References and Notes
Inorganic Metabolism
Assimilation of Nitrate and Sulfate
Dissimilation of Nitraate and Sulfate
Nitrogen Fixation
Study Questions
Reference and Notes
C1 Metabolism
Carbon Dioxide Fixation Systems
Growth on C1 Compounds Other than CO2: The Methylotrophs
Study Questions
References and Notes
Oxygen Toxicity
Energy Conservation by Anaerobic Bacteria
Electron Sinks
The Anaerobic Food Chain
How to Balance a Fermentation
Propionate Fermentation via the Acrylate Pathway
Propionate Fermentation via the Succinate-Propionate Pathway
Acetate Fermentation ( Acetogenesis)
Lactate Fermentation
Mixed-Acid and Butanediol Fermentation
Butyrate Fermentation
Ruminococcus albus
Study Questions
References and Notes
Responses to Environmental Stress
Maintaining a ?pH
Osmotic Pressure and Osmotic Potential
Heat-Shock Response (HSR)
Repairing Damaged DNA
The SOS Response
Oxidative Stress
Study Questions
References and Notes
Solute Transport
The Use of Proteoliposomes to Study Solute Transport
Kinetics of Solute Uptake
Energy-Dependent Transport
How to Determine the Source of Energy for Transport
Drug-Export Systems
Bacterial Transport Systems in Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Protein Transport and Secretion
The Sec System
The Translocation of Membrane-Bound Proteins
The E. coli SRP
Protein Translocation of Folded Proteins: The TAT System
Extracellular Protein Secretion
Folding of Periplasmic Proteins
Study Questions
References and Notes
Responses to Environmental Cues
Introduction to Two-Component Signaling Systems
Responses by Facultative Anaerobes to Anaerobiosis
Response to Nitrate and Nitrite: The Nar Regulatory System
Response to Nitrogen Supply: The Ntr Regulon
Response to Inorganic Phosphate Supply: The Pho Regulon
Effect of Oxygen and Light on the Expression of Photosynthetic Genes in the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus
Response to Osmotic Pressure and Temperature: Regulation of Porin Synthesis
Response to Potassium Ion and External Osmolarity: Stimulation of Transcription of the kdpABC Operson by a Two-Component Regulatory System
Acetyl Phosphate Is a Possible Global Signal in Certain Two-Component Systems
Response to Carbon Sources: Catabolite Repression, Inducer Expulsion, Permease Synthesis
Virulence Factors: Synthesis in Response to Temperature, pH, Nutrient Osmolarity, and Quorum Sensors
Study Questions
References and Notes
Chemotaxis, Photoresponses, Aerotaxis
Bacteria Measure Changes in Concentration Over Time
Proteins Required for Chemotaxis
A Model for Chemotaxis
Mechanism of Repellent Action
Chemotaxis That Does Not Use MCPs: The Phosphotransferase System Is Involved In Chemotaxis Toward PTS Sugars
Chemotaxis That Is Not Identical With The Model Proposed For The Enteric Bacteria
Photosynthetic Bacteria
Study Questions
References and Notes
Microbial Biofilms - Structured Multicellular Assemblies
Bacterial Multicellular Structures
Prevalence and Importance of Biofilms
Properties of Biofilms
Progression of Biofilm Formation and Dissolution
Regulation of Biofilm Formation
Inhibition of Biofilm Formation
Evolutionary Processes in Biofilms
Study Questions
References and Notes
Cell-Cell Communication Mechanisms
Diversity of Diffusible Signal Molecules Produced by Bacteria
Specific Signaling Systems
Cell-Cell Signaling that Requires Contact
Study Questions
References and Notes
Bacterial Development
Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis
Study Questions
References and Notes

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